Alterative-Herbs that gradually convert an unhealthy condition of an organ to a health one.  Gradually facilitates a beneficial change in the body. (plantain, red clover, poke root, burdock root, chaparral, oregon grape, blue flag, sassafras, sarsaparilla, echinacea, purple loosestrife, yellow dock, garlic)

Anthelmintic-Agents that destroys and expels worms from the intestines.  (wormwood, male fern, pomegranate, american womseed, kousso, pink root, tansy, pumpkin seeds, santonica, hyssop)

Astringent-Causes a local contraction of the skin, blood vessels, and other tissues, thereby arresting the discharge of blood, mucus, etc.  Usually used locally as a topical application. The word topical pertains to a certain area of the skin or to a substance that affects only the area to which it is applied.  (bayberry, oaks, red raspberry, mullein, white poplar, cranesbill, sumach, ground ivy, bistort, white pond lily, tormentil, witch hazel) 

Cathartic-Causes evacuation of the bowels. A cathartic may be either mild (laxative) or vigorous (purgative). (cascara sagrada, barberry, butternut bark, mountain flax, turkey rhubarb, senna, licorice, mandrake, wahoo, balm of gilead, balmony, culver's root, bitter root)

Diaphoretic-Promotes perspiration, especially profuse perspiration. (yarrow, chamomile, pleurisy toot, boneset, blessed thistle, thyme, hyssop, sage, catnip, spearmint)

Emmenagogue-Herbs that bring on menstruation. (squaw vine, tansy, pennyroyal, blessed thistle, false unicorn root, cramp bark, true unicorn, root, blue cohosh, rue, motherwort, life root, southernwood)

Expectorant & Demulcent-Promotes the thinning and ejection of mucus or exudate from the lungs, bronchi, and trachea; sometimes the meaning is extended to all remedies that quiet a cough. Soothes, protects, and relieves the irritation of inflamed mucous membranes and other surfaces. (comfrey, mullein, chickweed, marshmallow, slippery elm, elecampane, horehound, wild cherry, licorice, hollyhock)

Nervine & Antispasmodic-Prevents involuntary muscle spasm or cramps. Calms and soothes the nerves and reduces tension and anxiety.  (lobelia, skullcap, valerian, lady's slipper, mistletoe, wood betony, cramp bark, hops, black cohosh, wild yam)

Stimulant-Herbs that increases the activity or efficiency of a system or organ; acts more rapidly than a tonic.  (cayenne, jamaica ginger, virginia snake root, peppermint, cloves, horseradish, black pepper, prickly ash).

Medicinal Properties of Herbs

Tonic-Herbs that restore and strengthen the entire system.  Produces and restores normal tone.  A general tonic would be one that braces up the whole system, such as a cold bath.  (barberry, calumba, american columbo, golden seal, peruvian bark, white poplar, european centaury, blessed thistle, myrrh, balmony, gentian, false unicorn root)

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